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Research and development of the upland rice in the cropping systems of Ea Sup district, Daklak province (PhD. Thesis. Dao Minh So, 2012. IAS, Email: so.dm@iasvn.org)
Thứ sáu, 14-12-2012 | 08:16:42

ABSTRACT

Ea Sup district, Dak Lak province is mountainous area, where there are being settled by many ethnic minority people. Cereal cultivation is the main production with rice accounting for 50% of cultivated area which has varied from 11 to 14 thousand ha in recent years. Predominantly rice growing land area is characterized by farming system as a typical system of annual crops. In Ea Sup, the sub-region of rice is under semi - plains, undulating terrain, the soil is very poor nutrition, poor surface water resources, extreme weather with the heat and often cause drought. Although the primary crops, but upland rice yield is very low, averaging only 1.5 to 2.5 t/ha, should bring economic benefits are negligible. In this context, the "Research and development of the upland rice in the cropping systems of Ea Sup district" is absolutely necessary, remarkable significance for food security and economic improvement in the ethnic minorities near border areas. Research results from 2007 - 2010 summarized as follows: (1) Drought was a top external constraint, followed by irregular rainfall and very poorly nutrient soils. How to transport, lacking of scientific information, most of inhabitants are poor and uneducated people leading to interested problem required to be supported by policy measures. Lack of drought tolerance rice varieties and farming practices was not reasonable, as evident from the use of seeds rate and fertilizer dose as the limiting factor should be corrected. There above reasons make the upland rice yield is low (≤ 2.5 t / ha) and economic benefits seem to be zero (at 2008); (2) Identified for 4 new upland rice varieties with higher yields than the control as following: LC227, LC404, LC406 and LC408. These varieties had short to medium growth duration, good plant types, and fair to good drought tolerance, low blast infection, medium amylose content, good quality and good taste accepted by the local consumers. LC227 and LC408 are two varieties suitable to cultivate in most upland rice sub-region and having be developed for hundreds of hectares in Ea Sup (MARD has approved as pilot – production varieties); (3) Experiments on cultivation techniques represented by two new upland rice varieties (LC227 and LC408) showed that: i) Accumulated water level on fields surface were clearly affected the growth and development of rice plants leading to shorter growth duration and increased plant height. Two new upland rice varieties yield more dominant in Ea Súp popular varieties (IR64) on the dry land or where the limited time the volume of water in the growing period. For upland rice, have varieties adapted well to conditions fields with accumulated water surface (LC408) but the variety was only perform well on dry land condition (LC227); ii) Sowing of seed best suited for upland rice in Ea Sup from 140 - 180 kg/ha. On dry land, sowing of seed and yield are very closely related and highest yield of seeds sown with 178 kg/ha; iii) In ranking, phosphate had to affect significantly on upland rice yield in Ea Sup, followed by nitrogen, but potassium was not defined. Formula of mineral fertilizers: 104 N + 85 P2O5 + 30 K2O for the highest yield and the formula 90 N + 80 P2O5 + 30 K2O was optimal in economic profit. Formula 60 N + 60 P2O5 + 30 K2O had highly efficient use of N and P, yield and economic efficiency are also accepted in the Ea Sup condition; (4) Production of one crop per year was the main pattern and the green beans - rice rotation that is the additionally reasonable pattern for upland rice farming systems in Ea Sup. Crop yields in the innovated patterns had the significant increase that were higher than ones by farmer practices, reaching to 15.8 to 40.0% increased for rice and from 62.5 to 81.1% for green beans. Price of agricultural products, following by yield, the two main factors affected the economic interests of upland rice farming systems. In 2009, it was an upland rice crop per year cultivated by new varieties and suitable application of fertilization indicated the most effective result. The improved pattern was optimal green beans - rice system in 2010 with the indirectly economic parameters such as rate of return, profit margin and MBCR have been achieved high levels of income 35 millions VND/ha, the profits was more than 20 millions VND/ha, actually it is very significant in the difficult conditions of Ea Sup.

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