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Metabolomic analysis of sheath blight disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) induced by Rhizoctonia solani phytotoxin
Sunday, 2022/09/18 | 06:58:46

Wadzani Palnam DaudaVirendra Singh RanaAmolkumar U SolankeGopala KrishnanBishnu Maya BashyaRashmi AggarwalVeerubommu Shanmugam

 J Appl Microbiol.; 2022 Aug 11.  doi: 10.1111/jam.15776. Online ahead of print.


Figure: Rice shrath blight symptom.


Aim: To understand the mechanism of necrosis incited by a host-selective phytotoxin designated as Rhizoctonia solani toxin (RST) identified to be a potential pathogenic factor of R. solani AG1 IA, causing sheath blight (ShB) of rice.


Methods and results: The metabolomic changes induced by the phytotoxic metabolite in a ShB susceptible rice cultivar were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and compared with that of the pathogen to identify rice metabolites targeted by the phytotoxin. The profiles of about 29 metabolites with various physiological roles in rice plants have been identified worldwide. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate chemometrics (principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis) and cluster (Heat maps) analyses were used to compare the metabolites obtained from chemical profiles of the treatments with sterile distilled water (SDW) control. The results indicated that the rice plant expressed more metabolites in response to the pathogen than the phytotoxin and was lowest in SDW control. The key metabolites expressed in rice in response to the treatments were investigated by the variable importance in projection (VIP) analysis using p < 0.05 VIP >15. The analysis identified 7 and 11 upregulating metabolites in the phytotoxin and the pathogen treatments, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Among the phytotoxin-treated and the pathogen inoculated samples, the phytotoxin-treated sample recorded upregulation of six metabolites, whereas nine metabolites were upregulated in the pathogen-inoculated samples. These upregulating metabolites are speculated for the necrotic symptoms characteristic to both the phytotoxin and pathogen. In this analysis, hexadecanoic acid and dotriacontane were highly expressed metabolites specific to the phytotoxin and pathogen-treated samples, respectively. Besides upregulation, the metabolites also have a VIP score of >1.5 and hence fulfilled the criteria of classifying them as reliable potential biomarkers. In the pathway analysis, hexadecanoic acid and dotriacontane were identified to be involved in several important biosynthetic pathways of rice, such as the biosynthesis of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acids cutin, suberin and wax.


Conclusions: The study concludes that though certain metabolites induced by the phytotoxin in the susceptible variety during necrosis shares with that of the pathogen, the identification of metabolites specific to the phytotoxin in comparison to the pathogenic and SDW controls indicated that the phytotoxin modulates the host metabolism differently and hence can be a potential pathogenicity factor of the ShB fungus.


Significance and impact of the study: Due to lack of knowledge on the pathway genes of RST and in the absence of an ShB-resistant variety, understanding differentially expressed metabolic changes induced in the susceptible variety by the phytotoxin in comparison to that of the pathogenic and uninoculated controls enables us to identify the key metabolite changes during the ShB infection. Such metabolomic changes can further be used to infer gene functions for exploitation in ShB control.


See https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35957552/

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