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Development of Drought-Tolerant Transgenic Wheat: Achievements and Limitations.

Crop yield improvement is necessary to keep pace with increasing demand for food. Due to climatic variability, the incidence of drought stress at crop growth stages is becoming a major hindering factor to yield improvement. New techniques are required to increase drought tolerancealong with improved yield. Genetic modification for increasing drought tolerance is highly desirable, and genetic engineering for droughttolerance requires the expression of certain stress-related genes. Genes have been identified which confer drought tolerance and improve plant growth and survival in transgenic wheat.

Khan SAnwar SYu SSun MYang ZGao ZQ.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jul 8; 20(13). pii: E3350. doi: 10.3390/ijms20133350.

Abstract

Crop yield improvement is necessary to keep pace with increasing demand for food. Due to climatic variability, the incidence of drought stress at crop growth stages is becoming a major hindering factor to yield improvement. New techniques are required to increase drought tolerancealong with improved yield. Genetic modification for increasing drought tolerance is highly desirable, and genetic engineering for droughttolerance requires the expression of certain stress-related genes. Genes have been identified which confer drought tolerance and improve plant growth and survival in transgenic wheat. However, less research has been conducted for the development of transgenic wheat as compared to rice, maize, and other staple food. Furthermore, enhanced tolerance to drought without any yield penalty is a major task of genetic engineering. In this review, we have focused on the progress in the development of transgenic wheat cultivars for improving droughttolerance and discussed the physiological mechanisms and testing of their tolerance in response to inserted genes under control or field conditions

 

See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31288392

 

Table 1. Improving drought tolerance of wheat through engineering gene.

Transgene

Transgenic Recipient

Source

Improved Traits

References

TaWRKY2

Fielder, a spring Triticum aestivum cultivar

Xifeng20, a drought tolerant wheat

Higher survival rate, proline, soluble sugar and chlorophyll.

[70]

calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase CIPK23

Fielder, a Triticum aestivum cultivar

Triticum aestivumcultivar Xiaobaimai

Higher survival rate, increased osmolytes, induction of stomatal closure, enhanced ABA sensitivity.

[91]

aldose reductase gene MsALR

CY-45, a spring Triticum aestivum cultivar

Alfalfa

Higher detoxification activity for the aldehyde substrate; higher biomass and seed weight.

[96]

HVA1

Hi-Line, a spring Triticum aestivum cultivar

Barley

Improved biomass and water use efficiency.

[48]

HVA1

Hi-Line, a spring Triticum aestivum cultivar

Barley

Higher plant height, total biomass and grain yield.

[49]

Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase mtlD

Bobwhite, Triticum aestivum cultivar

Escherichia coli

Improved biomass, mannitol accumulation.

[18]

betA encoding choline dehydrogenase

Jinan 17, Triticum aestivum cultivar

Escherichia coli

Accumulation of glycinebetaine.

[32]

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BADH

Triticum aestivum

Atriplex hortensis

Higher BADH activity, show normal growth.

[35]

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BADH

Line (T6), from Shi4185 line

Atriplex hortensis

Accumulation of glycinebetaine.

[31]

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BADH

Line (T6), from Shi4185 line

Atriplex hortensis

Decreased PSII photoinhibition.

[36]

GmDREB

Lumai22, Triticum aestivum cultivar

Glycine max cultivar Jinong27

Improved drought tolerance with more leaves, roots and high soluble sugar contents.

[17]

Δ1-pyrroline-5 carboxylate
synthetase, P5CS

CD200126, Triticum aestivum cultivar

Vigna aconitifolia

Proline biosynthesis.

[19]

Δ1-pyrroline-5 carboxylate
synthetase, P5cs

Triticum aestivum

Triticum aestivum

Proline accumulation.

[28]

DREB1A

bread wheat

Arabidopsis thaliana

More branched root phenotype higher total number of heads, enhance drought tolerance.

[62]

sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase SBPase

Line (T2) from cultivar Cadenza

Brachypodium distachyon

SBPase promoter fully drive the GUS expression.

[97]

HaHB4

cv. Cadenza

Sunflower

Increased yield and water use efficiency.

[16]

AtWRKY30

Sakha-61 genotype, Triticum aestivum

Arabidopsis thaliana

Higher biomass, photosynthesis, relative water content, prolines, soluble proteins, soluble sugars, and antioxidant enzymes activities.

[98]

AtHDG11

Chinese Spring, Triticum aestivum

Arabidopsis thaliana

More yield, higher proline content and photosynthesis, lower stomatal density, lower water loss rate, and increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

[60]

cold shock protein gene SeCspA

cultivar KN199, winter wheat

Escherichia coli

Higher proline, grain weight and grain yield, less reduction in chlorophyll, low MDA content.

[44]

ferritin gene, TaFER-5B

Jimai5265, wheat cultivar

wheat cultivar, TAM107

Improved leaf iron content and ROS, enhanced drought and temperature tolerance.

[51]

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase-related kinase gene, TaPEPKR2

Liaochun10, wheat cultivar

wheat cultivar, TAM107

Enhanced drought tolerance, higher root length.

[89]

TaSHN1

Triticum aestivum cultivar Gladius

Australian drought tolerant genotype RAC875

Lower stomatal density and leaf water loss, and improved recovery after severe drought.

[58]

TaNF-YB4

Triticum aestivum cultivar Gladius

Triticum aestivumcultivar RAC875

More spikes.

[95]

DREB/CBF gene TaRAP2.1Lmut

Triticum aestivum cultivar Gladius

Triticum aestivumcultivar RAC785

Enhanced ability to survive frost and drought.

[99]

OTS1, overly tolerant to salt-1

Triticum aestivumGamtoos-R

Arabidopsis thaliana

Delayed senescence, higher relative water content, photosynthesis and antioxidants.

[86]

TaNAC69

Triticum aestivum cultivar Bobwhite

Triticum aestivum

More root biomass, longer roots.

[77]

TabZIP2

Triticum aestivum cultivar Gladius

Triticum aestivumcultivar RAC875

Fewer spikes and seeds, increased single seed weight.

[82]

DREB

Triticum aestivum cultivar Bobwhite

Triticum durum L. cultivar Langdon

Improved survival, slow growth, delayed flowering, less grain yield.

[100]

DREB

Triticum aestivum cultivar 8901, 5–98, 99–92, Baofeng 104

Arabidopsis thaliana

Still green after 15 d withholding water, high proline contents.

[101]

PEPC

Triticum aestivum cultivar Zhoumai19

Maize

Higher proline, soluble sugar and water use efficiency.

[53]

CspA and CspB

Triticum aestivum cultivar KN199

Escherichia coli

Lower water loss rate and MDA content, higher chlorophyll, proline and yield.

[44]

 

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