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Root system architecture, physiological analysis and dynamic transcriptomics unravel the drought-responsive traits in rice genotypes

Drought is the major abiotic factors that limit crop productivity worldwide. To withstand stress conditions, plants alter numerous mechanisms for adaption and tolerance. Therefore, in the present study, 106 rice varieties were screened for drought tolerance phenotype via exposing different concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) in the hydroponic nutrient medium at the time interval of 1, 3, and 7 days to evaluate the changes in their root system architecture.

Poonam Tiwari , Dipali Srivastava, Abhishek Singh ChauhanYuvraj IndoliyaPradyumna Kumar SinghShalini TiwariTouseef FatimaShashank Kumar MishraSanjay Dwivedi , Lalit AgarwalPoonam C SinghMehar H AsifRudra D TripathiPramod A ShirkeDebasis ChakrabartyPuneet Singh ChauhanChandra Shekhar Nautiyal

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 1;207:111252.  doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111252. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Abstract

Drought is the major abiotic factors that limit crop productivity worldwide. To withstand stress conditions, plants alter numerous mechanisms for adaption and tolerance. Therefore, in the present study, 106 rice varieties were screened for drought tolerance phenotype via exposing different concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) in the hydroponic nutrient medium at the time interval of 1, 3, and 7 days to evaluate the changes in their root system architecture. Further, based on root phenotype obtained after PEG-induced drought, two contrasting varieties drought-tolerant Heena and -sensitive Kiran were selected to study transcriptional and physiological alterations at the same stress durations. Physiological parameters (photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenol content) production indicated better performance of Heena than Kiran. Comparatively higher accumulation of carotenoid and anthocyanin content and the increased photosynthetic rate was also observed in Heena. Root morphology (length, numbers of root hairs, seminal roots and adventitious roots) and anatomical data (lignin deposition, xylem area) enable tolerant variety Heena to better maintain membrane integrity and relative water content, which also contribute to comparatively higher biomass accumulation in Heena under drought. In transcriptome profiling, significant drought stress-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in both the varieties. A total of 1033 and 936 uniquely upregulated DEGs were found in Heena and Kiran respectively. The significant modulation of DEGs that were mainly associated with phytohormone signaling, stress-responsive genes (LEA, DREB), transcription factors (TFs) (AP2/ERF, MYB, WRKY, bHLH), and genes involved in photosynthesis and antioxidative mechanisms indicate better adaptive nature of Heena in stress tolerance. Additionally, the QTL-mapping analysis showed a very high number of DEGs associated with drought stress at AQHP069 QTL in Heena in comparison to Kiran which further distinguishes the drought-responsive traits at the chromosomal level in both the contrasting varieties. Overall, results support the higher capability of Heena over Kiran variety to induce numerous genes along with the development of better root architecture to endure drought stress.

 

See https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32916530/

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