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MicroRNA: A Dynamic Player from Signalling to Abiotic Tolerance in Plants

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules composed of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in plants. They play an important regulatory role in plant growth and development and as a signal in abiotic tolerance. Some abiotic stresses include drought, salt, cold, high temperature, heavy metals and nutritional elements. miRNAs affect gene expression by manipulating the cleavage, translational expression or DNA methylation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs)

Ziming MaLanjuan Hu

Int J Mol Sci.; 2023 Jul 12; 24(14):11364. doi: 10.3390/ijms241411364.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules composed of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in plants. They play an important regulatory role in plant growth and development and as a signal in abiotic tolerance. Some abiotic stresses include drought, salt, cold, high temperature, heavy metals and nutritional elements. miRNAs affect gene expression by manipulating the cleavage, translational expression or DNA methylation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). This review describes the current progress in the field considering two aspects: (i) the way miRNAs are produced and regulated and (ii) the way miRNA/target genes are used in plant responses to various abiotic stresses. Studying the molecular mechanism of action of miRNAs' downstream target genes could optimize the genetic manipulation of crop growth and development conditions to provide a more theoretically optimized basis for improving crop production. MicroRNA is a novel signalling mechanism in interplant communication relating to abiotic tolerance.

 

See https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37511124/

 

Figure 1

The mode of action of plant miRNAs: after the plant miRNA recognizes and binds to the target mRNA, the AGO will shear the target mRNA at the 10th and 11th nucleotides of the miRNA binding site. When plant miRNAs bind to target mRNAs, the AGO will shear the target mRNA of the miRNA binding site, thereby degrading the target mRNA. Another mechanism of plant miRNAs action is achieved through translational repression of its target genes.

 

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