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From landraces to improved cultivars: Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Mediterranean wheat using SNP markers.
Saturday, 2019/07/27 | 06:12:44

Rufo RAlvaro FRoyo CSoriano JM.

PLoS One. 2019 Jul 15;14(7):e0219867. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219867. eCollection 2019.


Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in crops is essential for breeding and germplasm conservation. A collection of 354 bread wheat genotypes, including Mediterranean landraces and modern cultivars representative of the ones most widely grown in the Mediterranean Basin, were characterized with 11196 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Total genetic diversity (HT) and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.36 and 0.30 respectively for both landraces and modern cultivars. Linkage disequilibrium for the modern cultivars was higher than for the landraces (0.18 and 0.12, respectively). Analysis of the genetic structure showed a clear geographical pattern for the landraces, which were clustered into three subpopulations (SPs) representing the western, northern and eastern Mediterranean, whereas the modern cultivars were structured according to the breeding programmes that developed them: CIMMYT/ICARDA, France/Italy, and Balkan/eastern European countries. The modern cultivars showed higher genetic differentiation (GST) and lower gene flow (0.1673 and 2.49, respectively) than the landraces (0.1198 and 3.67, respectively), indicating a better distinction between subpopulations. The maximum gene flow was observed between landraces from the northern Mediterranean SPs and the modern cultivars released mainly by French and Italian breeding programmes.


See https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219867


Figure 3: Principal coordinates analyses based on genetic distance.

A) Landraces: red, SP1; green, SP2; blue, SP3; dark grey, admixed; light grey, modern cultivars. B) Modern cultivars: yellow, SP4; dark blue, SP5; violet, SP6; dark grey, admixed; light grey, landraces.


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