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Two genes encoding caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase 1 (CCoAOMT1) are candidate genes for physical seed dormancy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)
Thursday, 2024/06/20 | 06:55:04

Kularb LaosatitKitiya AmkulYun LinXingxing YuanXin Chen & Prakit Somta

TAG; Published: 04 June 2024; Volume 137, article number 146

Key message

The major QTL Sdp1.1+ controlling seed dormancy in cowpea was finely mapped, and two CCoAOMT1 genes were identified as candidate genes for the dormancy.

Abstract

Seed dormancy in wild cowpea may be useful in breeding cultivated cowpea with pre-harvest sprouting resistance. A previous study identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed dormancy, Sdp1.1+ , using the population of the cross between cultivated cowpea ‘JP81610’ and wild cowpea ‘JP89083.’ However, the molecular basis of seed dormancy in cowpea is not yet known. In this study, we aimed to finely map the locus Sdp1.1+ and identify candidate gene(s) for it. Germination tests demonstrated that the seed coat is the major factor controlling seed dormancy in the wild cowpea JP89083. Microscopic observations revealed that wild cowpea seeds, unlike cultivated cowpea seeds, possessed a palisade cuticle layer. Fine mapping using a large F2 population of the cross JP81610 × JP89083 grown in Thailand revealed a single QTL, Sdp1.1+ , controlling seed dormancy. The Sdp1.1+ was confirmed using a small F2 population of the same cross grown in Japan. The Sdp1.1+ was mapped to a 37.34-Kb region containing three genes. Two closely linked genes, Vigun03g278900 (VuCCoAOMT1a) and Vigun03g290000 (VuCCoAOMT1b), located 4.844 Kb apart were considered as candidate genes for seed dormancy. The two genes encoded caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase 1 (CCoAOMT1). DNA sequencing and alignment of VuCCoAOMT1a and VuCCoAOMT1b between JP89083 and JP81610 revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) causing an amino acid change in VuCCoAOMT1a and several SNPs leading to six amino acid changes in VuCCoAOMT1b. Altogether, these results indicate that VuCCoAOMT1a and VuCCoAOMT1b are candidate genes controlling physical seed dormancy in the wild cowpea JP89083.

 

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