Welcome To Website IAS

Hot news

Independence Award

- First Rank - Second Rank - Third Rank

Labour Award

- First Rank - Second Rank -Third Rank

National Award

 - Study on food stuff for animal(2005)

 - Study on rice breeding for export and domestic consumption(2005)


- Hybrid Maize by Single Cross V2002 (2003)

- Tomato Grafting to Manage Ralstonia Disease(2005)

- Cassava variety KM140(2010)

Website links
Vietnamese calendar
Visitors summary
 Curently online :  3
 Total visitors :  5437400

Ecological Engineering had significant impact on women farmers’ pest management practices in Tien Giang province Vietnam
Monday, 2013/07/01 | 08:26:38

by Moni on June 27, 2013

Le Quoc Cuong, Ho Van Chien, Southern Regional Plant Protection Center, Long Dinh, Tien Giang, Vietnam,
Monina Escalada, Visayas State University, Baybay, Leyte, Philippines and
K.L. Heong, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines

Women in Tien Giang province participating in a field demonstration of growing flowers on the bunds and reduce insecticide use.


Ecological engineering (EE) methods were introduced into Vietnam in 2009 and was launched by the vice minister, Dr Bui Ba Bong, on 10 September 2010.  Two years later on World Women’s Day 8 March 2012, Tieng Giang province launched the “Women in Ecological Engineering” program. We started the first training of 250 women farmers selected from village women clubs on 7 February 2012 and the trained farmers would who would introduce EE to their own villages.  Before the training a pretest survey was conducted (n = 505) in December 2011 to serve as the baseline and in October 2012 the post test survey was conducted to determine effects of the launching day campaign.  Preliminary surveys done in February 2012 on trained women farmers showed significant changes in attitudes and practice. We now compare the baseline and the posttest survey conducted in October 2012, about 7 months after the launch. For both surveys randomly selected farmers from 10 districts in Tien Giang interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire, translated into Vietnamese and pretested. The field data was coded using Microsoft Excel and uploaded onto SPSS.


Table 1. Profile of women farmers interviewed in pre and post test surveys (mean values)


Pre test

Post test

F value


% diff

Sample size





Age (years)






Education (years)






Farming experience (years)







First insecticide sprayed applied (days after sowing)






Total insecticide sprays






Percent farmers who did not use insecticides (%)





There were significant differences between pre and post test surveys in age and farming experiences of about 1 to 2 years.  Part of these differences might be due to the 10 months difference in time between pre and post surveys. There was no difference in farmers’ education. A useful indicator of farmers’ pest management decision is the time they had applied the first spray, as the heuristic “no insecticide sprays are needed in the first 40 days” had been introduced in the Government’s “3 reductions 3 gains” program (Heong et al 2010). The women farmers in Tien Giang significantly reduced their insecticide sprays by 12% and the proportion of farmers who had not used any insecticides increased by 14%.


Women farmers’ adoption of EE and pest management practices depends on their beliefs. We used a psychometric framework to develop 2 belief indices with belief items related adopting ecological engineering and pest management practices. Farmers’ beliefs were scored using a 5 point Likert scale and presented to farmers as statements in a prompt card with 1 = “Definitely not true”, 2 = “In most cases not true”, 3 =  “Maybe true”, 4 = “In most cases true” and 5 = “Always true”. To evaluate farmers’ attitudes in pest management and ecological engineering we used 12 and 10 belief items, respectively. Wherever necessary the scores were recoded to ensure that they had consistency in directions. The reliability analysis was then conducted and Cronbach’s alpha computed using SPSS.   The closer the Cronbach’s alpha is to 1, the higher is the internal consistency (Gliem & Gliem, 2003) and in general the widely accepted alpha value is 0.70 or higher for a set of items is considered reliable. Both sets of items for ecological engineering and pest management beliefs were found to be psychometrically sound with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.798 (10 items) and 0.777 (12 items), respectively.


Table 2:  Belief indices of pre- and post-campaign launch

Belief indices

Mean scores


 z values


% change



Ecological engineering (EEBel)





+ 9.8

Pest management (PMBel)





+ 49.6


Quantitative assessment using belief indices


The Likert scores of the 2 sets of belief items were summed and computed into indices that ranged from zero to 1.0, with zero representing the “worse case” and 1.0 representing the “perfect case”. These two indices were used to assess effects of the EE program launch on World Women’s Day on 8 March 2012 on farmers’ adoption attitudes. The indices were computed using the formula


Belief Index = (Sum_Likert scores – min) / (max – min)

where Sum_Likert scores is obtained by summing scores of all cases, min is the minimum score obtained or the number of items and max is the maximum possible score of all items. For instance if the number of items is 12, then min = 12 and max = 60.


The non parametric test for unrelated samples test,  Kolmogorov-Smirnov (z values), was used to compare differences in belief indices. Results are shown in Table 3 with the central tendencies presented as arithmetic mean scores.


Table 3:  Changes in some key belief items that favored adoption of improved ecological engineering and pest management practices.

Key belief items in Ecological Engineering

% farmers believing to be “Always True”


 z values






Flowers on bunds attract bees and parasites






Flowers on bunds help us reduce insecticides






Flowers on bunds help reduce BPH outbreaks






Key belief items in Pest Management

% farmers believing to be “Always true”


 z values






Insecticides MUST be used to increase yields






All insects are pests and MUST be killed






Leaf folders are serious pest and MUST be sprayed






Both belief indices changed significantly after the launch. Ecological beliefs improved by 10% while that for pest management by 40%. Farmers’ insecticides sprays were negatively correlated with PMBel (Spearman’s rho – 0.215 sig at p=0.01) and EEBel (Spearman’s rho – 0.108 not significant at p=0.05) suggesting that the PMBel accounted for the reduction in insecticide use. There was marked increase in the proportion of farmers not using any insecticide or just once.


The “Women in EE program” launched on 8 March 2012 by the Tien Giang provincial government had significantly changed women farmers’ beliefs related to ecological engineering and in pest management. Some key beliefs that favored the adoption of ecological engineering have positively changed.  For instance more than 20% more farmers now believe that flowers on the bunds can bring in bees and parasites (small bees), can help reduce insecticide use and reduce BPH outbreaks. Similarly in pest management, significantly more farmers had changed some key beliefs that favored insecticide use. Farmers’ beliefs that all insects are pests, the leaf folder MUST be sprayed and insecticides MUST be used to increase yields had significantly reduced by about 70%. (Table 3).



Gliem, Joseph A. & Gliem, Rosemary R. 2003. Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for Likert-type scales. paper presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Oct. 8-10, 2003.


Heong, KL, Escalada, MM, Huan, NH,  Chien, HV  and Quynh, PV. 2010. Scaling out communication to rural farmers: lessons from the “Three Reductions, Three Gains” campaign in Vietnam.  Pp 207-220. Ch 13. In “Research to impact:  case studies for natural resource management for irrigated rice in Asia.”  (eds) FG. Palis, GR Singleton, MC Casimero, B. Hardy. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 370 p.  (pdf)


Back      Print      View: 2943

[ Other News ]___________________________________________________
  • Beyond genes: Protein atlas scores nitrogen fixing duet
  • 2016 Borlaug CAST Communication Award Goes to Dr. Kevin Folta
  • FAO and NEPAD team up to boost rural youth employment in Benin, Cameroon, Malawi and Niger
  • Timely seed distributions in Ethiopia boost crop yields, strengthen communities’ resilience
  • Parliaments must work together in the final stretch against hunger
  • Empowering women farmers in the polder communities of Bangladesh
  • Depression: let’s talk
  • As APEC Concludes, CIP’s Food Security and Climate Smart Agriculture on Full Display
  • CIAT directly engages with the European Cocoa Industry
  • Breeding tool plays a key role in program planning
  • FAO: Transform Agriculture to Address Global Challenges
  • Uganda Holds Banana Research Training for African Scientists and Biotechnology Regulators
  • US Congress Ratifies Historic Global Food Security Treaty
  • Fruit Fly`s Genetic Code Revealed
  • Seminar at EU Parliament Tackles GM Crops Concerns
  • JICA and IRRI ignites a “seed revolution” for African and Asian farmers
  • OsABCG26 Vital in Anther Cuticle and Pollen Exine Formation in Rice
  • Akira Tanaka, IRRI’s first physiologist, passes away
  • WHO calls for immediate safe evacuation of the sick and wounded from conflict areas
  • Farmer Field School in Tonga continues to break new ground in the Pacific for training young farmers


Designed & Powered by WEBSO CO.,LTD